Fifteen Eighty Four

Academic perspectives from Cambridge University Press


The Paris (and Toronto) Years

 January 1923

Six poems by EH published in Poetry: A Magazine of Verse.

bullfightin 216-18 January 1923

EH returns to Paris and visits the apartment at 74, rue du Cardinal Lemoine, in a working-class neighborhood in the fifth arrondissement, where he and Hadley have lived since January 1922.

26 May – mid-June 1923

EH embarks with Robert McAlmon on his first trip to Spain to attend the bullfights; they are joined by Bill Bird in Madrid and travel on to Seville, Ronda, Granada, Toledo, and Aranjuez.



c. 6-14 July 1923

EH returns to Spain with Hadley to attend the Fiesta of San Fermín in Pamplona.

13 August 1923

Three Stories and Ten Poems published in Paris by McAlmon’s Contact Editions. The stories are “My Old Man,” “Out of Season,” and “Up in Michigan.”

26 August 1923

EH and Hadley sail from France for Canada aboard the Andania.

10 September 1923

EH begins work as a staff writer on the Toronto Daily Star.

Autumn 1923

“In Our Time,” six vignettes, are published in the delayed Spring 1923 issue of the Little Review. EH obtains a copy of the magazine on his trip to New York.

10 October 1923

John Hadley Nicanor Hemingway, nicknamed “Bumby,” is born. EH is en route back to Toronto and misses the birth. bumby 1

1 January 1924

EH’s resignation from the Toronto Star takes effect.

19-30 January 1924

The Hemingways sail from New York to France aboard the Antonia.

17 February 1924

EH begins assisting Ford Madox Ford with the Transatlantic Review and advocates the serial publication of Stein’s The Making of Americans.

3 April 1924

in our time is published in Paris by Bill Bird’s Three Mountains Press.

25 June-13 July 1924

EH and Hadley travel to Spain, leaving Bumby with their housekeeper, Marie Rohrbach. In Pamplona they stay at the Hotel Perla and are joined by John Dos Passos, Donald Ogden Stewart, Chink Dorman-Smith, Robert McAlmon, George O’Neil, and Bill and Sally Bird for the Fiesta of San Fermín.

October 1924

F. Scott Fitzgerald recommends EH’s work to Maxwell Perkins, editor for Charles Scribner’s Sons.

22 December 1924

EH’s review of Sherwood Anderson’s A Story Tellers Story appears in the Paris edition of the Chicago Tribune.

In Our Time4 March 1925

Liveright offers to publish EH’s short-story collection In Our Time; EH accepts by cable on 6 March.

Mid-March 1925

EH meets Pauline Pfeiffer, a writer for Paris Vogue, whom he will marry in 1927.

c. late April 1925

EH meets F. Scott Fitzgerald at the Dingo Bar in Paris.

c. mid-May 1925

EH and Fitzgerald travel to Lyon to retrieve the Fitzgeralds’ automobile, driving it back to Paris. Soon thereafter, the Hemingways accept an invitation to dinner at the Fitzgeralds’ rue de Tilsitt apartment, where they meet Zelda for the first time.


25 June-13 July 1925

Having sent Bumby to Brittany with the Rohrbachs, EH and Hadley travel to Spain. They are joined by Bill Smith, Donald Ogden Stewart, Harold Loeb, Duff Twysden, and Pat Guthrie for the fiesta at Pamplona. EH will use parts of the trip as the basis for his first novel, published in 1926 as The Sun Also Rises.

23 July-3 August 1925

In Valencia EH begins writing a complete draft of his novel in the first of a series of dated notebooks, using the working title “Fiesta: A Novel.”Ernest Hemingway, Pauline Pfeiffer

5 October 1925

In Our Time is published in New York by Boni & Liveright.

c. early November 1925

EH expresses disappointment over Gertrude Stein’s refusal to review In Our Time, marking a break in their friendship.

c. 23 November-2 December 1925

Satirizing his early mentors, EH writes The Torrents of Spring, a parody of Sherwood Anderson’s Dark Laughter and Gertrude Stein’s The Making of Americans.

24 December 1925

Pauline Pfeiffer joins EH and Hadley in Schruns for the holidays.

30 December 1925

In a cable to EH, Boni & Liveright rejects The Torrents of Spring, thus freeing EH from his contract with the firm and allowing him to move to Scribner’s.

Editor’s Note:
This timeline has been adapted from The Letters of Ernest Hemingway, Volume 2 (1923-1925), edited by Sandra Spanier, Albert J. DeFazio III, and Robert W. Trogdon.

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