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31

May

2022

Lifeblood: the challenges of managing water and sanitation in Australian cities

 
 

In our new book, Cities in a Sunburnt Country, we consider how Australians have met the challenges posed by the need to provide safe water in the world’s driest inhabited continent and sewerage systems for rapidly growing, sprawling urban centres. In this land of drought and flooding rains, tensions persist between managing problems of too little water in particular times and places, and too much water in others. Home to most of the nation’s population, the five largest cities are exposed to extreme weather events, as all lie in close proximity to the coast and rely heavily on dams, rivers and nearby catchments for their water, with the exception of Perth which is increasingly reliant on groundwater and desalination plants.

In the past two centuries, developed countries have benefited from new structures and reticulation systems that provides greater control over water, contributing to an expansion in the range of available goods and services. But the distribution of these benefits has been socially uneven, with disadvantaged groups vulnerable to risks of environmental damage, pollution from defective sewers, and flooding.   

The challenge to produce effective water management strategies that foster more sustainable, resilient, productive, liveable, and equitable cities is a ‘wicked’ problem – defying simple solutions and requiring analysis that bridges disciplinary divides to inform appropriate resource use and policy action. We are a team of seven researchers with a mission of seeking to contribute to the creation of more resilient and sustainable water systems through the study of water history. Our expertise spans the fields of environmental, economic, urban, and planning history. Our publications, as well as our virtual exhibition on water crises and Australian cities at the Rachel Carson Center (https://www.environmentandsociety.org/exhibitions/drought-mud-filth-and-flood), are based on shared ideas and perspectives that allow us to ask new questions of historical and current approaches to water supply and management.     

While urban Australians expect reliable and safe water and waste disposal, this is threatened by the limitations of nature and the costs of maintaining, expanding, and improving existing and new networks. New technologies, especially water recycling may enable a more sustainable water supply, but such changes will be costly and will only happen with the support of major political parties and voters. At a time when the uneven impact of globalisation and technological change has made voters in middle and outer suburban, regional, and rural Australia more sensitive to job insecurity and cost of living pressures than those in well-off central and inner cities, we need clear information about the costs and benefits of water management options.

Australians are usually complacent about their real water usage and its environmental consequences. Historically, Australia has resorted to physical infrastructure to both manage and provide water, and economic strategies of water fees and rationing to regulate its use. As we move towards a more uncertain climatic future, Australians may need to rethink these strategies, including embracing centuries of Aboriginal knowledge, especially about how to conserve and use water wisely.

Cities in a Sunburnt Country By Margaret Cook, Lionel Frost, Andrea Gaynor, Jenny Gregory, Ruth A. Morgan, Martin Shanahan, and Peter Spearritt
Cities in a Sunburnt Country By Margaret Cook, Lionel Frost, Andrea Gaynor, Jenny Gregory, Ruth A. Morgan, Martin Shanahan, and Peter Spearritt

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About the Author: Andrea Gaynor

Andrea Gaynor is Professor of History and Australian Research Council Future Fellow at The University of Western Australia. An environmental historian, she seeks to use the contextualising and narrative power of history to support transitions to more just and sustainable societies....

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About the Author: Lionel Frost

Lionel Frost is the author of The New Urban Frontier: Urbanisation and City-Building in Australasia and the American West (1991), winner of the Dyos Prize in Urban History (1994), and a contributor to the Cambridge History of Australia (2013), Cambridge World History (2015), and Cambridge Economic History of Australia (2015)....

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About the Author: Margaret Cook

Margaret Cook is an environmental historian, author of A River with a City Problem: A History of Brisbane Floods (2019) and co-editor (with Scott McKinnon) of Disasters in Australia and New Zealand (2020). She was the recipient of the John and Ruth Kerr Medal of Distinction in History (2020)....

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About the Author: Jenny Gregory

Jenny Gregory AM FRHS is Emeritus Professor of History at The University of Western Australia. Her research focuses on urban history, primarily town planning and heritage. Her books include City of Light: A History of Perth since the 1950s (2003) and, as Editor-in-Chief, the Historical Encyclopedia of Western Australia (2009)....

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About the Author: Peter Spearritt

Peter Spearritt is Emeritus Professor in History at The University of Queensland and a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia. His books include Sydney's Century (2000), Where History Happened: The Hidden Past of Australia's Towns and Places (2018), and, as co-author, The Twentieth-Century Historic Thematic Framework (2021)....

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About the Author: Martin Shanahan

Martin Shanahan is Professor of Economic and Business History at the University of South Australia and Elof Hansson Visiting Professor in International Business and Trade at Gothenburg University, Sweden. A recipient of the Butlin Prize in Economic History, he has also written on wealth and income distribution, international cartels and water marke...

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About the Author: Ruth A. Morgan

Ruth A. Morgan is an environmental historian, whose prize-winning work on the histories of water and climate has been generously funded by the Australian Research Council and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. She is a Lead Author in Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Sixth Assessment Report....

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