The book accumulates more than a 40-year experience of the authors’ research in the field of chemical non-equilibrium effects in combustion and reactive flows and includes our theoretical developments and tools which have a number of novel features that include but are not limited to the following:
- Chemical kinetics equations in exponential form. They provide an opportunity to substantially increase the initial integration step; allow a prediction of extremely small concentrations of species; and reduce the scope of calculations.
- Method of a so called ’large molecules’. It allows the extending of the models of reacting gas-phase flows to heterogeneous medium.
- The mass exchange reactions are used to simplify simulation of combustion in conditions of evaporation, condensation, emission of electrons and ions and surface reactions.
- Application of eigenvalues to combustion analysis for the need of comparison and selection of explicit and implicit integration schemes, and for a study of self-oscillating regimes of real reactive media.
- Procedures of reduction of chemical mechanisms developed for idealized reactors and nozzles.
Given a potential diverse preparation of prospective readers, from graduate students to established researchers, we decided to cover fundamentals of chemical kinetics and thermodynamics which prevails the presentation of unique models and samples of the results of our numerical studies.
A substantial part of the monograph is devoted to the detailed description of mathematical models, along with examples demonstrating the possibility of applying our developments to the modeling and study of combustion and flow of reacting mixtures in a variety of propulsion and power generation units. Among the samples the following is discussed:
Some of the typical combustion models
- The heat model of the flame front at increased pressures allowing to simulate the combustion of the mixture of two different fuels having different flame propagation speeds.
- The model of contribution of chemical non-equilibrium effects in the evaporation of dispersed fuels and oxidizers in the reacting flow. It is applied as an example for improving a working parameters of gas generators including emission of pollutants.
- The model of liquid droplet evaporation at supercritical pressures that is essential for the analysis of the combustion of cryogenic propellants.
- The model of evaporation of multifractional droplets necessary for simulation of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.
Applied models for the simulation of combustion and flow in propulsion and power generation units
- The multi-reactor model of combustion in the conditions of reverse flow applicable to the simulation of combustion and flow in a variety of combustion chambers such as combustors of air-breathing engines, heat- or steam- gas generators. The model could be used for performing preliminary studies on combustion and flow, and for subsequent justification of the application of the CFD methods.
- The model of combustion in the gas generators of liquid propellant rocket engines. It could be applied to both a fuel-rich and fuel-lean working mediums allowing for droplet atomization polydispersity, droplets evaporation at both subcritical and supercritical pressures.
- The model of pressurization of liquid-propellant rocket engine tanks. It considers the chemical non-equilibrium effects essential for the comparatively low level of reacting medium temperature and chemical pressurization, and allows for complex flow patterns of pressurizing gas.
- The model of combustion in spark ignition internal combustion engines. It involves a chemical non-equilibrium phenomena and, specifically, its impact on the ionization of combustion products allowing researchers and practitioners to study the interrelationship between ionization and release of pollutants important for the development of electronic engine management systems.
We are confident that researchers, practitioners, lecturers, and graduate students will all find this book very informative and valuable.